In here we share the next set of questions you can expect as you prepare for your interview as a manual tester. In total our expert has prepared a set of 50 questions. Click part I to read about the earlier article.
Ques.25 Explain equivalence class partitioning.
Ans. Equivalence class partitioning is a specification based black box testing techniques. In equivalence class partitioning, set of input data that defines different test conditions are partitioned into logically similar groups such that using even a single test data from the group for testing can be considered as similar to using all the other data in that group. E.g. for testing a Square program(program that prints the square of a number- the equivalence classes can be-Set of Negative numbers, whole numbers, decimal numbers, set of large numbers etc.
Ques.26 What are the different levels of the testing?
Ans. Testing can be performed at different levels during the development process. Performing testing activities at multiple levels help in early identification of bugs. The different levels of testing are –
- Unit Testing
- Integration Testing
- System Testing
- Acceptance Testing
Ques.27 What is Unit Testing?
Ans. Unit Testing is also called as Module Testing or Component Testing. It is done to check whether the individual unit or module of the source code is working properly. It is done by the developers in developer’s environment.
Ques.28 What is Integration Testing?
Ans. Integration Testing is the process of testing the interface between the two software units. Integration testing is done by three ways. Big Bang Approach, Top Down Approach, Bottom-Up Approach
Ques.29 What is Functional Testing?
Ans. In simple words, what the system actually does is functional testing. To verify that each function of the software application behaves as specified in the requirement document. Testing all the functionalities by providing appropriate input to verify whether the actual output is matching the expected output or not. It falls in the scope of black box testing and the testers need not concern about the source code of the application.
Ques.30 What is Non-Functional Testing?
Ans. In simple words, how well the system performs is non-functionality testing. Non-functional testing refers to various aspects of the software such as performance, load, stress, scalability, security, compatibility etc., Main focus is to improve the user experience on how fast the system responds to a request.
Ques. 31 What is Retesting?
Ans. To ensure that the defects which were found and posted in the earlier build were fixed or not in the current build. Say, Build 1.0 was released. Test team found some defects (Defect Id 1.0.1, 1.0.2) and posted. Build 1.1 was released, now testing the defects 1.0.1 and 1.0.2 in this build is retesting.
Ques. 32 What is Regression Testing?
Ans. Repeated testing of an already tested program, after modification, to discover any defects introduced or uncovered as a result of the changes in the software being tested or in another related or unrelated software components.
Usually we do regression testing on the following cases:
- New functionalities are added to the application
- Change Requirement (In organizations, we call it as CR)
- Defect Fixing
- Performance Issue Fix
- Environment change (E.g., Updating the DB from MySQL to Oracle)
Ques.33 What is Monkey Testing?
Ans. Perform abnormal action on the application deliberately in order to verify the stability of the application.
Ques.34 What is Usability Testing?
Ans. To verify whether application is user friendly or not and was comfortably used by end user or not. The main focus in this testing is to check whether the end user can understand and operate the application easily or not. Application should be self-exploratory and must not require training to operate it.
Ques.35 What is the difference between Standalone application, Client-Server application and Web application?
Ans. Standalone application:
Standalone applications follow one-tier architecture. Presentation, Business and Database layer are in one system for single user.
Client Server Application:
Client server applications follow two-tier architecture. Presentation and Business layer are in client system and Database layer in another server. It works majorly in Intranet.
Web server applications follow three-tier or n-tier architecture. Presentation layer is in client system, Business layer is in application server and Database layer is in Database server. It works both in Intranet and Internet.
Ques.36 When to stop testing? (Or) How do you decide when you have tested enough?
Ans. There are many factors involved in the real time projects to decide when to stop testing.
- Testing deadlines or release deadlines
- By reaching the decided pass percentage of test cases
- The risk in the project is under acceptable limit
- All the high priority bugs, blockers are fixed
- When acceptance criteria is met
Ques.37 Explain stress testing, load testing and volume testing?
Ans. Load Testing: Testing an application under heavy but expected load is known as Load Testing. Here, the load refers to the large volume of users, messages, requests, data, etc.
Stress Testing: When the load placed on the system is raised or accelerated beyond the normal range then it is known as Stress Testing.
Volume Testing: The process of checking the system, whether the system can handle the required amounts of data, user requests, etc. is known as Volume Testing.
Ques.38 What is Entry and Exit Criteria in Software Testing?
Ans. Entry Criteria is the process that must be present when a system begins, like,
- SRS (Software Requirement Specification)
- FRS (Functional Requirement Specification)
- Test Case
- Test plan
Exit Criteria ensures whether testing is completed and the application is ready for release, like,
Test Summary Report
Defect Analysis report
Ques.39 What is the difference between High level and Low Level test case?
Ans. High level Test cases are those which cover major functionality in the application (i.e. retrieve, update display, cancel (functionality related test cases), database test cases).
Low level test cases are those related to User Interface (UI) in the application.
Ques.40 What is the difference between Two Tier Architecture and Three Tier Architecture?
Ans. In Two Tier Architecture or Client/Server Architecture two layers like Client and Server is involved. The Client sends request to Server and the Server responds to the request by fetching the data from it. The problem with the Two Tier Architecture is the server cannot respond to multiple requests at the same time which causes data integrity issues.
The Client/Server Testing involves testing the Two Tier Architecture of user interface in the front end and database as backend with dependencies on Client, Hardware and Servers.
In Three Tier Architecture or Multi Tier Architecture three layers like Client, Server and Database are involved. In this the Client sends a request to Server, where the Server sends the request to Database for data, based on that request the Database sends back the data to Server and from Server the data is forwarded to Client.
The Web Application Testing involves testing the Three Tier Architecture including the User interface, Functionality, Performance, Compatibility, Security and Database testing.
Ques.41 What is Web Application testing? Explain the different phases in Web Application testing?
Ans. Web Application testing is done on a website to check its load, performance, Security, Functionality, Interface, compatibility and other usability related issues. In Web application testing, three phases of testing is done, they are,
Web Tier Testing
In Web tier testing, the browser compatibility of the application will be tested for IE, Fire Fox and other web browsers.
Middle Tier Testing
In Middle tier testing, the functionality and security issues were tested.
Database Tier Testing
In Database tier testing, the database integrity and the contents of the database were tested and verified.
Ques.42 Explain Alpha, Beta, Gamma Testing?
Ans. Alpha Testing:
Alpha Testing is mostly like performing usability testing which is done by the in-house developers who developed the software or testers. Sometimes this Alpha Testing is done by the client or an outsider with the presence of developer and tester. The version release after alpha testing is called Alpha Release.
Beta Testing is done by limited number of end users before delivery, the change request would be fixed if the user gives feedback or reports defect. The version release after beta testing is called beta Release.
Gamma Testing is done when the software is ready for release with specified requirements, this testing is done directly by skipping all the in-house testing activities.
Ques.43 What are Integration Testing and Regression Testing?
Ans. Integration Testing:
- Combining the modules together & construct software architecture.
- To test the communication & data flow
- White & Black box testing techniques are used
- It is done by developer & tester
- It is re-execution of our testing after the bug is fixed to ensure that the build is free from bugs.
- Done after bug is fixed
- It is done by Tester
Ques.44 What is Ad-hoc testing?
Ans. Ad hoc testing is concern with the Application Testing without following any rules or test cases.
For Ad hoc testing one should have strong knowledge about the Application.
Ques.45 What is exact difference between Debugging & Testing?
Ans. Testing is nothing but finding an error/problem and its done by testers where as debugging is nothing but finding the root cause for the error/problem and that is taken care by developers.
Debugging- is removing the bug and is done by developer.
Testing – is identifying the bug and is done by tester.
Ques.46 What is UAT testing? When it is to be done?
Ans. UAT stands for ‘User acceptance Testing’ This testing is carried out with the user perspective and it is usually done before a release
UAT stands for User Acceptance Testing. It is done by the end users along with testers to validate the functionality of the application. It is also called as Pre-Production testing.
Ques.47 What Is The Difference Between Static Testing And Dynamic Testing?
Ans. Static Testing.
- It is a white box testing technique which directs the developers to verify their code with the help of checklist to find errors in it.
- Developers can start it done without actually finalizing the application or program.
- Static testing is more cost effective than Dynamic testing.
- It covers more areas than Dynamic testing in a shorter time.
- Dynamic testing involves the execution of an actual application with valid inputs and checking of the expected output.
- Examples of Dynamic testing are Unit Testing, Integration Testing, System Testing and Acceptance Testing.
- Dynamic testing happens after the code deployment.
- It starts during the validation stage.
Ques.48 What Is Risk Analysis?
Ans. Risk analysis is a technique to identify the things that can go wrong in a software development project. They can negatively impact the scope, quality, timeliness, and cost of a project.
However, everyone involved in the project has a part in minimizing the risk. But it’s the lead who ensures that whole team understands the individual role in managing the risk.
Ques.49 What is Boundary value testing?
Ans. Test boundary conditions on, below and above the edges of input and output equivalence classes. For instance, let say a bank application where you can withdraw maximum Rs.20,000 and a minimum of Rs.100, so in boundary value testing we test only the exact boundaries, rather than hitting in the middle. That means we test above the maximum limit and below the minimum limit.
Ques.50 What is traceability matrix?
Ans. The relationship between test cases and requirements is shown with the help of a document. This document is known as traceability matrix.
About the author
Sanah, has 6 years of experience in the field of software quality. She has worked with various MNC’s in this short span of time and has been awarded with various awards. She is ISTQB certified and is currently residing in Arizona, USA. When she is not ensuring an application is release defect free she likes to cuddle up dogs at the puppies meet or catch up movies.